U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton speaks during a
news conference at the NATO headquarters in Brussels.
Washington fears a "desperate" Syrian President Bashar
al-Assad could use chemical weapons as rebels bear down on
Damascus, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton says, repeating a
vow to take swift action if he does.
Rebels fighting to overthrow Assad said they had surrounded
an air base near Damascus, a fresh sign the battle is closing
in on the Syrian capital, a day after NATO agreed to send air
defence missiles to Turkey.
The Western military alliance's decision to send U.S., German
and Dutch Patriot missile batteries to help defend the
Turkish border would bring European and U.S. troops to
Syria's frontier for the first time in the 20-month-old civil
Heavier fighting erupted around Damascus a week ago, bringing
a war that had previously been fought mainly in the provinces
to the centre of Assad's power. Fighters said on Wednesday
they had surrounded the Aqraba air base, about 4 km (2.5
miles) outside the capital.
"We still do not control the air base but the fighters are
choking it off. We hope within the coming hours we can take
it," said Abu Nidal, a spokesman for a rebel force called the
Habib al-Mustafa brigade.
He said rebels had captured a unit of air defence soldiers,
killing and imprisoning dozens while others escaped.
Syria's state news agency said the army was still firmly in
control of the base, but did not comment on rebel claims that
they were surrounding the area.
Accounts like this from Syria are impossible to verify, as
the government has restricted media access to the country.
For several days, Western officials have repeatedly focussed
on what they say is a threat that Assad could use poison gas.
After meeting other NATO foreign ministers in Brussels,
Clinton said: "Our concerns are that an increasingly
desperate Assad regime might turn to chemical weapons, or
might lose control of them to one of the many groups that are
now operating within Syria.
"We have sent an unmistakable message that this would cross a
red line and those responsible would be held to account," she
U.S. officials have said this week they have intelligence
that Syria may be making preparations to use chemical arms.
Syria, which has not signed the international chemical
weapons treaty banning the use of poison gas, says it would
never use such weapons on its own people. Those comments were
reiterated by Deputy Foreign Minister Faisal Maqdad in a
television interview with Sky News.
"ASSAD WILL NEVER LEAVE"
Maqdad made the first appearance by a government official for
over a week, since fighting around the capital intensified.
He laughed off media reports that he had passed on a letter
from Assad exploring the possibility of asylum during his
recent trip to Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador and Nicaragua.
"This is funny, this is laughable," he said. "I assure you
100 percent that President Assad will never ever leave his
But the rebels have been making advances across the country
in recent weeks, despite punishing air raids, and have
stepped up fighting outside Damascus. Wednesday saw fighting
in a semi-circle of suburbs on the capital's eastern
"The shelling is so loud, it feels like every other minute
there is an air raid or an artillery shell hitting. We were
woken up early by the sounds of the shelling in the eastern
suburbs today," Ayman, who lives near the suburb of Jaramana,
said by Skype.
Most of the areas being shelled are pro-opposition, apart
from Jaramana, seen as a pro-government or neutral area,
where town elders have refused rebel requests to pass
A rebel unit said fighters had attacked a checkpoint on the
outskirts of Jaramana. Heavy fighting was also reported in
the suburbs of Saqba, Irbeen, and Zamalka, according to the
pro-opposition Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
The army's strategy has been to divide Damascus, Assad's seat
of power, from the countryside where rebels are increasingly
dominant. Air raids and artillery have pounded rebel-held
suburbs near the city for more than a week, in what activists
call the worst shelling yet in the area.
A Syrian government source said the army had pushed rebels
back 9 km (5 miles) from the capital.
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged the government, the
opposition and their foreign allies to end the bloodshed,
which he said had killed more than 40,000 people.
"I am urging again that the parties immediately stop the
violence and those countries who may have influence on both
parties should be exerting their utmost efforts to influence
them to stop," he said at a news conference in Kuwait.
"And those countries that may be providing military equipment
and other assistance should stop."
NATO's decision to send air defence missiles to the Turkish
frontier is a first military step into the region by an
alliance that has so far refused to repeat the kind of armed
intervention that helped toppled Libya's Muammar Gaddafi last
NATO says the Patriot missiles are purely defensive. Syria
and allies Russia and Iran say the move increases regional
instability and could set the stage to impose a no-fly zone.
Turkey, a NATO member hostile to Assad and hosting thousands
of refugees, says it needs the air defence batteries to shoot
down any missiles that might be fired across its border. The
German, Dutch and U.S. batteries would take weeks to deploy.
"What it does do, of course, is send a very powerful signal,"
Lieutenant General Frederick Hodges, commander of NATO's new
land command headquarters in the Turkish city of Izmir, told
"The Assad regime, the father and now the current Assad, have
in desperate times taken desperate steps, so this is a very
clear signal about what is not going to be allowed. NATO is
not going to allow an expansion of what the Assad regime is
A Turkish foreign ministry official said: "The Patriots were
requested to create a counter-measure to every possible kind
of threat, first and foremost short-range ballistic missiles,
because we know they have them."
Cengiz Candar, a veteran commentator at Turkey's Radikal
newspaper who travelled with Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu
to Brussels this week, said the government was worried about
some of Syria's 500 missiles falling into the wrong hands.
"The minister and his team were of the view that Syria was
not expected to use them against Turkey, but that there was a
risk of these weapons falling into the hands of 'uncontrolled
forces' when the regime collapses," Candar wrote on
Fighting continued for a seventh day near the highway leading
to Damascus International Airport, which opposition activists
say has become an on-off battle zone.
Fighting around Damascus has led airlines to suspend flights
and prompted diplomats to leave, adding to a sense the fight
is closing in. Hungary said on Wednesday it would shut its