Anti-Mursi protesters sit outside their tents, below a flag
that reads 'No, to Constitution' at Tahrir Square in Cairo.
The Egyptian government has given the military the
authority to arrest civilians to help safeguard a
constitutional referendum Islamist President Mohamed Mursi
has planned for. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany
Egypt's Islamist president has given the army temporary
power to arrest civilians during a constitutional referendum he
is determined to push through despite the risk of bloodshed
between his supporters and opponents accusing him of a power
Seven people were killed and hundreds wounded last week in
clashes between the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood and their
critics besieging Mohamed Mursi's graffiti-daubed
presidential palace. Both sides plan mass rallies on Tuesday.
The elite Republican Guard has yet to use force to keep
protesters away from the palace, which it ringed with tanks,
barbed wire and concrete barricades after last week's
Mursi, bruised by calls for his downfall, has rescinded a
November 22 decree giving him wide powers but is going ahead
with a referendum on Saturday on a constitution seen by his
supporters as a triumph for democracy and by many liberals as
A decree issued by Mursi late on Sunday (local time) gives
the armed forces the power to arrest civilians and refer them
to prosecutors until the announcement of the results of the
referendum, which the protesters want cancelled.
Despite its limited nature, the edict will revive memories of
Hosni Mubarak's emergency law, also introduced as a temporary
expedient, under which military or state security courts
tried thousands of political dissidents and Islamist
But a military source stressed that the measure introduced by
a civilian government would have a short shelf-life.
"The latest law giving the armed forces the right to arrest
anyone involved in illegal actions such as burning buildings
or damaging public sites is to ensure security during the
referendum only," the military source said.
Presidential spokesman Yasser Ali said the committee
overseeing the vote had requested the army's assistance.
"The armed forces will work within a legal framework to
secure the referendum and will return (to barracks) as soon
as the referendum is over," Ali said.
Protests and violence have racked Egypt since Mursi decreed
himself extraordinary powers he said were needed to speed up
a troubled transition since Mubarak's fall 22 months ago.
The Muslim Brotherhood has voiced anger at the Interior
Ministry's failure to prevent protesters setting fire to its
headquarters in Cairo and 28 of its offices elsewhere.
Critics say the draft law puts Egypt in a religious
straitjacket. Whatever the outcome of the referendum, the
crisis has polarised the country and presages more
instability at a time when Mursi is trying to steady a
On Monday, he suspended planned tax increases only hours
after the measures had been formally decreed, casting doubts
on the government's ability to push through tough economic
reforms that form part of a proposed $4.8 billion IMF loan
Rejecting the referendum plan, opposition groups have called
for mass protests on Tuesday, saying Mursi's eagerness to
push the constitution through could lead to "violent
Islamists have urged their followers to turn out "in
millions" the same day in a show of support for the president
and for a referendum they feel sure of winning with their
loyal base and perhaps with the votes of Egyptians weary of
The opposition National Salvation Front, led by liberals such
as Mohamed ElBaradei and Amr Moussa, as well as leftist
firebrand Hamdeen Sabahy, has yet to call directly for a
boycott of the referendum or to urge their supporters to vote
Instead it is contesting the legitimacy of the vote and of
the whole process by which the constitution was drafted in an
Islamist-led assembly from which their representatives
The opposition says the document fails to embrace the
diversity of 83 million Egyptians, a tenth of whom are
Christians, and invites Muslim clerics to influence
But debate over the details has largely given way to noisy
street protests and megaphone politics, keeping Egypt off
balance and ill-equipped to deal with a looming economic
"Inevitability of referendum deepens divisions," was the
headline in Al-Gomhuriya newspaper on Monday. Al Ahram daily
wrote: "Political forces split over referendum and new
Mursi issued another decree on Saturday to supersede his Nov.
22 measure putting his own decisions beyond legal challenge
until a new constitution and parliament are in place.
While he gave up extra powers as a sop to his opponents, the
decisions already taken under them, such as the dismissal of
a prosecutor-general appointed by Mubarak, remain intact.
Lamia Kamel, a spokeswoman for former Arab League chief
Moussa, said the opposition factions were still discussing
whether to boycott the referendum or call for a "no" vote.
"Both paths are unwelcome because they really don't want the
referendum at all," she said, but predicted a clearer
opposition line if the plebiscite went ahead as planned.
A spokeswoman for ElBaradei, former head of the U.N. nuclear
watchdog, said: "We do not acknowledge the referendum. The
aim is to change the decision and postpone it."
Mahmoud Ghozlan, the Muslim Brotherhood's spokesman, said the
opposition could stage protests, but should keep the peace.
"They are free to boycott, participate or say no, they can do
what they want. The important thing is that it remains in a
peaceful context to preserve the country's safety and
The army stepped into the conflict on Saturday, telling all
sides to resolve their disputes via dialogue and warning that
it would not allow Egypt to enter a "dark tunnel".
A military source said the declaration read on state media
did not herald a move by the army to retake control of Egypt,
which it relinquished in June after managing the transition
from Mubarak's 30 years of military-backed one-man rule.
The draft constitution sets up a national defence council, in
which generals will form a majority, and gives civilians some
scrutiny over the army - although not enough for critics.
In August Mursi stripped the generals of sweeping powers they
had grabbed when he was elected two months earlier, but has
since repeatedly paid tribute to the military in public.
So far the army and police have taken a relatively passive
role in the protests roiling the most populous Arab nation.