Waves crash over the conical drilling unit Kulluk where it sits aground on the southeast side of Sitkalidak Island, Alaska in this U.S. Coast Guard handout photo taken January 1. Photo by Reuters
The runaway oil rig that ran aground in Alaska on New Year's
Eve dragged two vessels trying to control it more than 16km
toward shore in just over an hour before the crews cut it
loose to save themselves in "near hurricane" conditions.
Details were still emerging on Wednesday from the U.S. Coast
Guard and Royal Dutch/Shell, the company at the center of a
controversial and accident-prone Arctic oil drilling
programme of which the Kulluk drillship is a vital part.
They paint a frightening picture of the 28,000-tonne,
saucer-shaped rig being thrust toward the shore on waves up
to 11m high driven by winds up to 100km, pulling its main
towing vessel, the Aiviq, and a tug, the Alert, behind it.
"We are talking about near hurricane-strength conditions,"
said Darci Sinclair of the Kulluk Tow Incident Unified
Command, set up by the U.S. Coast Guard and the companies
involved. "Regaining control became extremely challenging."
The unified command said the Kulluk was now "upright and
stable" on Sitkalidak Island in the Gulf of Alaska. Six
salvage experts spent three hours aboard it on Wednesday
(local time) for a structural assessment to be used by
Netherlands-based Smit Salvage.
Smit had worked on the Selendang Ayu, a ship that broke in
half and spilled fuel and soybeans after grounding in bad
December weather off Unalaska Island in 2004. Smit also
worked on the Costa Concordia, which grounded off Italy last
More than 600 people were involved in the Kulluk response
"This is a very large and complex response and it is
important that the American public and our elected officials
understand the dangerous and difficult challenges being faced
by the response crews," Rear Admiral Thomas Ostebo, commander
of the Coast Guard in Alaska, said in the statement.
The 30-year-old Kulluk is operated by Noble Corp and was
refitted by Shell for its summer 2012 drilling expedition in
the Beaufort Sea off northern Alaska.
Shell spent $US4.5 billion preparing for extraction
activities there and in the Chukchi Sea further east, but has
yet to complete a single well, while facing some embarrassing
Headlines that raise questions about the wisdom of drilling
so far north in such a environmentally delicate and
technically challenging place were not expected so early in
2013, given that activity stopped for the season two months
Any Kulluk damage could threaten Shell's 2013 drilling
programme because its oil-spill plans require a second rig to
be available at all times in case a relief well needs to be
drilled to kill the well. That is the Noble-owned Discoverer,
which would also be unable to drill without another rig
David Smith, spokesman at the Bureau of Safety and
Environmental Enforcement in Washington DC, said his division
would not yet speculate on the summer. The earliest date that
the drilling season could have started last year was July 1.
The Kulluk was on its way south for the winter. It had been
towed east from the Beaufort, and then south through the
Bering Strait that separates the northernmost U.S. state from
On December 28, about half-way to its winter destination in
Seattle, and 80km south of Kodiak Island in the Gulf of
Alaska, engine failure struck the Aiviq - an icebreaker that
is less than a year old, and whose name means "Walrus".
The weather was already rough and the Kulluk's 18-strong crew
had earlier been lifted off when a doomed four-day battle to
keep the Kulluk off the rocks began.
The effort ran into deeper difficulty a few hours after
nightfall on Dec. 31, with the shore less than 19 miles away.
Aiviq, one of two vessels attached at the time, lost its
line. It was re-attached, and battled on against the elements
along with the Alert, but the coastline kept getting closer
as the storm pushed all three vessels north-eastwards.
At 8.15pm on Monday (local time), the order came to cut the
Kulluk lines to save the Aiviq, the Alert and the crews.
At 8.30pm, the lines were cut, and by 8:48pm, a trajectory
map on the unified command website shows, the Kulluk was
aground about 1,600 feet from the shore on Sitkalidak Island,
near the larger Kodiak Island. The Kulluk, the wind, and the
waves had dragged Aiviq and Alert more than 16km in just over
The vessel settled on what one Coast Guard official described
as "loose rock and sand".
Noble had no immediate comment. Shell in London has made a
series of statements on the progress of the operation, but
had nothing to add on Wednesday, and referred calls to the
unified command. Shell in Houston could not be reached for
'One disaster to the next'
The spill risk from the drillship is limited to the 143,000
gallons of ultra-low-sulfur diesel and 12,000 gallons of
other oil products on board. Still, opponents of Arctic
drilling said the accident showed Shell was unable to keep
the Arctic safe.
"Shell has lurched from one Arctic disaster to the next,
displaying staggering ineptitude every step of the way,"
Greenpeace campaigner Ben Ayliffe said on Wednesday.
"Were the pristine environment of the frozen north not at
risk of an oil spill it would be almost comical. Instead it's
tragic," Ayliffe said. "We're moving closer to a major
catastrophe in the Arctic and the U.S. government appears
unwilling to provide either the needed oversight or emergency
backup the company's incompetence requires."
Shell's Arctic campaign has been bedeviled by problems. The
Coast Guard briefly detained the Discoverer in December in
Seward, Alaska, on safety concerns. A mandatory
oil-containment barge, the Arctic Challenger, failed for
months to meet requirements for seaworthiness, and a ship
mishap resulted in damage to a key piece of equipment
intended to cap a blown well.
Asked why the Kulluk was still at sea two months after work
stopped, one contract drilling source said the
"demobilisation" process after drilling can take days or
weeks depending on the rig model and its anchoring. It was
also possible the weather was rough enough over the last few
months to delay transit.
Replacing the Kulluk, if it ends up being badly damaged,
would add to the cost of the accident for Shell, which must
reimburse the federal and state governments for response
The Discoverer, which it has under a contract with Noble,
costs Shell $US240,000 per day - or a few-hundred million
dollars over the life of the two-year contract. Shell had to
spend $US292 million upgrading the Kulluk, when was built in
1983 and had been slated to be scrapped before Shell bought
it in 2005.