It has become an almost daily ritual in the townships ringing
Johannesburg and Pretoria - disaffected youths burning tyres,
looting shops and throwing rocks in a furious demand for
jobs, electricity and, increasingly, political change.
Police respond with everything from rubber bullets and live
ammunition - nine people have been shot dead so far this year
- to shrugs of the shoulders, reflecting the pressure on
officers faced with a seemingly unending flow of black anger
two decades after the end of apartheid.
In the last three months alone, police in the province of
Gauteng, South Africa's commercial hub, have been called out
to at least 569 "service delivery" protests, as they have
become known. Of these, more than 120 have been violent.
With elections now scheduled for May 7, the demonstrations
are starting to take on an increasingly political tone,
suggesting they are likely to get worse in the next two
On Friday, when rioters barricaded roads, pelted vehicles
with stones and looted a Pakistani-owned store in Hebron, a
township in rolling hills 30 km (20 miles) northwest of
Pretoria, the police response was too little and too late.
"There's nothing I can do," said warrant officer Solomon
Swaratlhe, a veteran of more than 30 years on the force who
cannot remember such persistent lawlessness - not even in the
dying days of white-minority rule in the early 1990s.
"This is worse than anything I have seen. I was phoning and
phoning but the others didn't come. What can one police car
do?" he said.
An R5 automatic rifle is tucked under his arm but Swaratlhe,
mindful of persistent accusations of police brutality, is
loathe to use it.
"I don't kill. I'm just here to protect," he said. "I haven't
eaten since 5.30 this morning. I'm so angry and tired. This
is so bad. We don't want to kill them. We just disperse them,
keep on dispersing them every day."
"A NATION BURNS"
The township protests often arise from single, unrelated
incidents - a broken sewage plant, the murder of a child, a
water outage or, in the case of Hebron, a dilapidated bridge
near a school.
They also have little direct impact on Africa's biggest
economy, taking place in forlorn communities far from the
bright lights and factories of Johannesburg, Cape Town and
The protesters themselves are almost all out of work, victims
of an economy struggling to recover from a 2009 recession and
which, even in the boom years before the global financial
crisis, still suffered unemployment above 20 percent.
However, the unrest is fuelling concerns about wider social
stability in a "Rainbow Nation" that has failed to live up to
Nelson Mandela's dream of equality, freedom and prosperity
Opposition political parties are seizing on the anger as
evidence of the failings of the African National Congress,
whose affirmative action policies have made limited progress
in narrowing racial inequality, with the average white
household still earning six times more than the average black
On Friday, Johannesburg's Star newspaper plastered a picture
of a street littered with burning tyres across its front page
under the headline "A Nation Burns". Editorials make
comparisons to the chaos that prevailed in the dying days of
The difference between now and two decades ago is that the
ANC is the target of the fury, not its instigator, suggesting
the party that has ruled since 1994 may take a hit on
election day even though it is almost certain to maintain its
"People are never going to vote for the ANC because they are
so angry," said 26-year-old unemployed Jerry Tlou outside a
looted store in Hebron.
Five years ago, he voted for the ANC, but says he is so sick
of the broken promises and corruption scandals that have
marked President Jacob Zuma's first term that he is backing
the opposition Democratic Alliance (DA), even though it is
still seen by many blacks as a "white" party.
"The ANC makes all these promises but they can't deliver. No
water, no electricity, they can't fix the roads. I am going
to vote for the DA," he said.
Others in the crowd outside the shop were pinning their hopes
on Julius Malema, a renegade ANC Youth League leader who was
kicked out of the party in 2012 and now leads the militant,
left-wing Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF).
Although investors blanche at Malema's rhetoric about
nationalisation of mines, banks and farms, his words fall on
fertile ground in places like Hebron.
Some analysts say the EFF could poll 5 percent or more
nationally, votes that will come at the expense of the ANC
and could push its support below the psychologically
important 60 percent mark, causing big problems for Zuma.
"We need jobs. We need work," said 38-year-old David Menziwa.
"We've got the qualifications but we're doing nothing. We're
voting for Malema because he can help us."