Kosuke Mori, a three-month-old baby, is fed by his mother
as Satoru Saito, general manager of Pigeon Corp's R&D
centre, conducts a research on how babies drink milk, at
Pigeon's facility in Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki prefecture.
In a quiet side-room at Pigeon Corp's spacious R&D
facility north of Tokyo, researchers are on a high-tech quest -
to perfect a baby's bottle teat that replicates a breastfeeding
Pigeon, founded almost 60 years ago, sells about 100 million
bottle teats a year and has a more than 80 percent share of
the Japanese market. As the country's birth rate declines,
the company has moved overseas and ex-Japan sales will this
year for the first time account for more than half its total
Its main target market is China, where parents aspire to
quality Japanese bottles to feed their babies. Pigeon, which
has a workforce of close to 3,500, hopes to have 50 percent
share of the baby bottle teat market in all major
international markets by around 2020, according to a note by
At its 15,400 square metre (165,800 sq ft) facility at
Tsukubamirai, some of the more than 100 researchers involved
in product development place ultrasound devices under
suckling babies' chins to monitor how their tongues move.
That's a step forward from when they used to place cameras
under the bottles to monitor how babies drink milk, and a
giant leap from the company's founder's research methods.
In a Japan recovering from World War II, Yuichi Nakata spent
six years travelling around the country asking lactating
mothers if he could drink from their breasts. He sometimes
offered to pay, and is said to have drunk the breast milk of
around 1,000 women - from hostesses to total strangers - to
learn more about their nipples.
"My grandfather was even slapped by women after he made the
proposal," said Yusuke Nakata, the late founder's grandson
who is now managing director at Pigeon's Singapore office.
"Our final goal is to make a teat as close as possible to a
real mother's nipples."
Pigeon today has 200 mother and baby paid volunteers who take
part in the research.
"Babies can't tell us if they're comfortable with the
bottles. For babies who can't drink from the bottle well, we
can't ask what's bothering them, so we came up with using
ultrasound devices," Nakata said.
Babies are born with a natural reflex to help them find and
latch on to the mother's nipple which, when it touches the
roof of the baby's mouth, triggers rhythmical cycles of
sucking - called the peristaltic movement - in which the
tongue compresses the nipple.
While the World Health Organization promotes breastfeeding as
the best source of infant nourishment, many mothers opt for
bottle-feeding for a variety of reasons.
"When a difficult baby drinks using our prototype teats,
we're thrilled," said Satoru Saito, who has worked at
Pigeon's R&D centre for 17 years and is now general
Pigeon's first teat was made from rubber, but these tended to
crack easily and have now been replaced by softer,
stretchable silicon-made teats.
Teats and baby bottles account for around a quarter of
A PIGEON OF PEACE
Reminiscing about how the company started, Nakata, 42, says
his grandfather wanted to be in a business that made the
world a more peaceful place after the war.
Yuichi worked in a department store and on an apple farm in
Manchuria, before being shipped off to Siberia in 1947 by the
Soviet Union. A year later, he returned to Japan and met a
Chinese businessman who started a firm selling baby bottles.
"The Chinese partner left as sales struggled, but my
grandfather stayed, convinced there would be strong demand
for baby bottles," Yusuke Nakata said. "Japan was trying to
recover from the war-time devastation, and he thought there
would be more women in the workforce in the future."
Meaning to call his company "Dove" because of its association
with peace, he mistranslated the Japanese word, and Pigeon
has stuck to this day.
Recognising the importance of product development, Nakata
recalled how his grandfather's product manager was one of the
few Japanese to own a car at the time. "He thought a
manufacturer can make money only when it has goods ready to
sell, so the product management's key person got special
Valued at more than $1.8 billion, Pigeon had sales of 77.47
billion yen ($762 million) in the year to end-January, with
operating profit jumping more than 46 percent to 10.37
billion yen. Overseas sales were 38.54 billion yen, with
around 60 percent of those in China, where Pigeon's
high-margin baby and health products compete against the NUK
brand of Germany's Mapa GmbH and Philips Avent.
Current year operating profit is likely to increase more than
15 percent, according to analysts surveyed by Thomson
Reuters. The company expects profit to rise almost 12
Pigeon is almost 50 percent foreign-owned, in a country where
average foreign ownership is just 28 percent. Its share price
has tripled over the last two years, but foreign investors
say they're keen to hold the stock for the long term.
"The China business has been the driver, with margins higher
than in Japan, and where new products like diapers have been
introduced," said Kabir Goyal, equity analyst at Wasatch
Advisors in Salk Lake City, which owns close to 3 percent of
"Going forward, we're excited to see Pigeon aggressively
enter new markets, such as the United States, Europe and
India," he said.