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Signed "Francesco" on its tank, the Dyna Super Glide sold for 241,500 euros ($US328,300), with a Harley-Davidson leather jacket, also signed by the pope, going for 57,500 euros, both to anonymous bidders, auction house Bonhams said.
"It has to be a world record for a 21st century Harley-Davidson and certainly for a Harley-Davidson leather jacket," said Ben Walker, head of motorcycles at Bonhams. The motorbike had a pre-sale estimate of 12,000-15,000 euros.
The items were presented to the head of the Roman Catholic Church last June by the manufacturer to mark the US brand's 110th anniversary.
In line with his focus on the poor, and his preference for modest modes of transport - he used to take public transport as a cardinal in Buenos Aires - Francis donated the motorbike to Catholic charity Caritas after signing it at a special ceremony at the Vatican in November.
The proceeds will go towards the renovation of a hostel and soup kitchen based at Rome's Termini railway station.