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Three White House officials and five US senators - Harry Reid, Robert Menendez, John McCain, Mary Landrieu and Dan Coats - were among the Americans barred from Russia, the Russian Foreign Ministry said.
US House of Representatives Speaker John Boehner was also on the list.
"We have repeatedly warned that sanctions are a double-edged instrument and would hit the United States like a boomerang," the Russian Foreign Ministry said. "There must be no doubt: We will respond adequately to every hostile thrust."
Moscow's action followed US sanctions on Russian, Ukrainian and Crimean individuals announced by President Barack Obama on Monday and again on Thursday.
The latest US sanctions, which also involved a bank, targeted several individuals close to Russian President Vladimir Putin in retaliation for his military seizure of Ukraine's Crimea region. Any assets they have in the United States will be frozen and they will also be barred from US travel.
The White House officials cited by Moscow were senior Obama adviser Dan Pfeiffer and deputy national security advisers Ben Rhodes and Caroline Atkinson.
Lawmakers in Washington were quick to welcome their new designation.
"The speaker is proud to be included on a list of those willing to stand against Putin's aggression," Boehner spokesman Michael Steel said.
Senator Dan Coats threw in a bit of sarcasm.
"While I'm disappointed that I won't be able to go on vacation with my family in Siberia this summer, I am honored to be on this list," the Indiana Republican said.