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Resuming this morning on 108, Ryder didn't let a brief ground delay due to overnight rain put him off his stride, as he continued his assault on the CD bowling attack.
The big left-hander, who has made himself unavailable for the national side as he works through his personal issues, was eventually dislodged by pace bowler Andrew Mathieson with 162 runs next to his name.
His three-and-a-half hour knock included 20 fours and four sixes and overshadowed the solid century that veteran opener Michael Papps put together as the pair added 256 - a record for Wellington against CD for the third wicket.
Papps crafted 117 and was one of three wickets claimed by debutant spinner Ajaz Patel (3-62) and Wellington were bowled out for 403 in reply to Central's first innings of 260.
Trailing by plenty on the first dig, CD went out and produced a solid start to their second innings as openers Jamie How and Jeet Raval went about erasing the 143-run deficit.
How was dismissed late in the day for 51, his 32nd first-class half century, but Raval finished the day unbeaten on 35, alongside night watchman Roald Badenhorst who added eight, as CD closed play on 98-1, 45 runs behind.
CD will need to dig in and bat for a majority of day three tomorrow if they want to fight back against Wellington and ensure they put themselves in a position where they can't lose the game.