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He blasted 172 off 76 balls in a tri-series match against Zimbabwe in Harare.
The hard-hitting right-hander, who surpassed his previous best of 156 against England in 2013, smashed 10 sixes and 16 fours in his blistering innings before his bizarre hit-wicket dismissal.
Australia's Twenty20 captain attempted a cut shot against a Blessing Muzarabani delivery outside the off-stump but he overbalanced in the process and ended up dislodging the bail when his bat hit the stump.
"The wicket played better than we thought. It came on well," Finch said at the innings break.
"I knew about the records when I was batting, but a few things went my way today. I took the strike from [D'Arcy] Short a bit, but that kind of innings for him will also help him.
"When the wickets get slower and lower, that kind of innings will help."
The 31-year-old also put on a record opening stand of 223 with fellow opener Short, bettering the 171-run stand between New Zealanders Martin Guptill and Kane Williamson against Pakistan in 2016.
Australia posted 229/2 in their 20 overs.
Zimbabwe reached just 129 in reply.
Finch had topscored with an unbeaten 68 in Australia's comprehensive nine-wicket win against Pakistan in their opening game on Monday.