Mathematician Alan Turing, who helped Britain win World
War Two by cracking Nazi Germany's "unbreakable" Enigma code,
was granted a rare royal pardon for a criminal conviction for
homosexuality that led to his suicide.
Turing's electromechanical machine, a forerunner of modern
computers, unravelled the code used by German U-boats in the
Atlantic. His work at Bletchley Park, Britain's wartime
codebreaking centre, was credited with shortening the war.
However, he was stripped of his job and chemically castrated
with injections of female hormones after being convicted of
gross indecency in 1952 for having sex with a man. Homosexual
sex was illegal in Britain until 1967.
Turing killed himself in 1954, aged 41, with cyanide.
Justice Minister Chris Grayling said the pardon from Queen
Elizabeth would come into effect immediately and was a
fitting tribute to "an exceptional man with a brilliant
"His brilliance was put into practice at Bletchley Park
during the Second World War where he was pivotal to breaking
the 'Enigma' code, helping to end the war and save thousands
of lives," Grayling said in a statement.
"His later life was overshadowed by his conviction for
homosexual activity, a sentence we would now consider unjust
and discriminatory and which has now been repealed," he said.
Only four royal pardons had been granted since the end of
World War Two, a spokeswoman for Grayling said.
Cosmologist Stephen Hawking and 10 other eminent scientists
had campaigned for years for "one of the most brilliant
mathematicians of the modern era" to be pardoned.
One of those scientists, Paul Nurse, President of the Royal
Society, said, "The persecution of this great British
scientist over his sexuality was tragic and I'm delighted
that we can now focus solely on celebrating his legacy."
In 2009, then Prime Minister Gordon Brown publicly apologised
on behalf of the government for "the appalling way" Turing
was treated but campaigners called for a full pardon.
In May 2012, a private member's bill was put before the House
of Lords in the British parliament to grant Turing a
statutory pardon and in July it gained government support.
Cameron on Tuesday described Turing as "a remarkable man who
played a key role in saving this country in World War Two".
"His action saved countless lives. He also left a remarkable
national legacy through his substantial scientific
achievements, often being referred to as the father of modern
computing," Cameron said in a statement.
The work at Bletchley Park, a secluded country house north of
London, only became public knowledge in the 1970s when its
role in the war and that played by Turing was revealed.
The cryptographers who worked there are credited with helping
to shorten World War Two by up to two years and they
deciphered around 3,000 German military messages a day.
Turing's team cracked the Enigma code, which the Germans
regarded as unbreakable, as well as designing and developing
Colossus, one of the first programmable computers.
But after the war, Prime Minister Winston Churchill ordered
the Colossus computers and 200 "Turing bombe" machines be
destroyed to keep them secret from the Soviet Union.