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The Auckland left-hander helped lift the home side to 314 for seven at stumps on day one of its Plunket Shield match against Otago.
He is undefeated on 101 from 136 balls, and will be looking to push on this morning.
The 24-year-old, whose previous highest score was 89, plugged the square boundary hard and also drove the ball nicely.
He took advantage of length and width - too much of both.
The Volts, though, secured a couple of early wickets. Debutant left-armer Tom Clout was smashed for 17 in his second over at the top level. But he responded with his maiden wicket in his next over, while Jacob Duffy had earlier got rid of a rusty-looking Jeet Raval.
The Black Caps selectors will be hoping the test opener rediscovers his touch before the series against Bangladesh gets under way next week.
Glenn Phillips (60), Graeme Beghin (47) and Robbie O'Donnell (45) put the pressure back on the visitors with solid knocks. But it was Chapman's innings which swung the day for the home side.
Matt Bacon was the most successful of the Otago bowlers, with three for 73. But Duffy bowled with discipline and Christi Viljoen was also economical.
At the Basin Reserve, Devon Conway struck his 16th first-class hundred to put Wellington in a good position in its match with Northern Districts.
He is undefeated on 146, while 19-year-old opener Rachin Ravindra fell just four runs short of his maiden first-class century.
The pair have helped steer Wellington to 367 for five. James Baker has been the pick of the bowlers with two for 58 on a tough day for the visitors.
In the other game, Canterbury is on top of Central Districts in Rangiora. Black Caps seamer Matt Henry took five for 76 to help dismiss Central for 261.
Tom Bruce and Dane Cleaver notched half centuries for Central. But, at stumps, Canterbury is 88 for two and well positioned to push on for a lead.