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French media reported the 37-year-old was stopped on Friday morning (local time) by police in Bordeaux after he was alleged to be driving on the wrong side of the road while four times over the legal alcohol limit.
The 58-test veteran refused a roadside breach test, but later gave a test which showed he had two grams of alcohol in his blood, French media reported.
He was released and will be summoned to appear in court.
It is not the first time the combative former halfback has found himself on the wrong side of the law.
In 2009 Kelleher ended a night boozing in Toulouse by crashing into a Porsche, fleeing the scene and getting into a punch-up with the other driver and passers-by.
He was later sentenced to a two-month suspended jail term and fined 3500 euros (NZ $5600) for drunk driving and violence, but the court also showed clemency in ruling the incident not be entered on his judicial record.
Kelleher moved to France after the All Blacks were eliminated from the 2007 Rugby World Cup, and played for French club Toulouse and, later, Paris-based club Stade Francais.
He retired from rugby last year.