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Canterbury District Commander Superintendent John Price said officers were called to an address in Oxford just after 4.30pm on Saturday after receiving reports that a man was damaging property.
The alleged offender is said to have approached police while they were still in a vehicle and one officer was attacked through an open window, police said in a statement.
The officer raised his arm to protect himself but was stabbed through the window of the car, police said.
The teen was charged with wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm, assault with a weapon, and two charges of threatening to kill.
This morning, the 17-year-old, who cannot be named for legal reasons, made a brief appearance at the Youth Court in Christchurch.
Youth Court Judge Stephen O'Driscoll said the teen would be held in the custody of Oranga Tamariki until his next court appearance on April 7.
Given the serious nature of the wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm charge, and his age, it will need to be transferred to the district court in the future.
The police officer was discharged from hospital on Saturday night and will be undergoing surgery today.