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Senior Sergeant Brian Benn, of Dunedin, said the woman's partner called police just after 2pm because of concerns for her safety.
Firearms were stored in the house.
A police negotiator talked to the woman, who gave herself up just before 5pm.
She was referred to emergency psychiatric services, Senior Sergeant Steve Aitken said.
Charges were unlikely, as no firearm was presented or accessed from the gun safe.
Police later removed several firearms from the house.
About 12 uniformed officers and AOS members were present and cordons were put in place in Cavell St and Tainui Rd.
Snr Sgt Aitken said the number of police was appropriate, as it was a high-density residential area and firearms were present.